In addition to concrete and steel, other major materials used are glass, silicone, and aluminum, which make up the outside façade of the tower. In massive structures like the Burj Khalifa, the concrete used in construction must be able to withstand the thousands of tonnes bearing down on it.
What is Burj Dubai in Dubai made of?
Burj Khalifa’s construction used 330,000 m3 (431,600 cu yd) of concrete and 55,000 tonnes (61,000 short tons; 54,000 long tons) of steel rebar, and construction took 22 million man-hours.
What is the Burj Khalifa building made of?
Burj Khalifa employs a record-breaking 330,000 cubic m (11.6 million cubic ft) of concrete; 39,000 m/t of reinforced steel; 103,000 sq m (1.1 million sq ft) of glass; 15,500 sq m (166,800 sq ft) of embossed stainless steel; and the tower took 22 million man hours to build.
What type of structure is the Burj Dubai?
The world’s tallest building, Burj Khalifa took 6 years for its construction and was inaugurated on 4th January 2010. The structure is 828m tall and the whole system is a reinforced concrete tower structure.
What is Burj Khalifa height?
Construction began: 1994. Construction completed: 1999. Number of room: 202. Construction cost: $7.8 billion.
Is Burj Khalifa made of bricks?
The 17m structure was constructed using 4,39,000 lego bricks over 5,000 hours.
How many storey building is Burj Khalifa?
At over 828 metres (2,716.5 feet) and more than 160 stories, Burj Khalifa holds the following records: Tallest building in the world. Tallest free-standing structure in the world.
Which cement is used in Burj Khalifa?
Elkem Microsilica® is used to make the high-strength concrete that is essential for constructing the world’s tallest buildings, such as the record-breaking Burj Khalifa in Dubai.
How did they build the Dubai Tower?
For the construction of the tower, BASF developed a special concrete mix that was pumped to a height of more than 600 metres (see ‘Pumping’) without segregating. Thanks to BASF’s admixture Glenium Sky 504, the concrete could be worked on for more than three hours before hardening took place.
How was the Burj Khalifa built on sand?
It is held up by a big concrete slab on its base, that works like a big snow shoe preventing it from sinking. Below it, 194 shafts of concrete were dug into ancient seashell dust, making friction the only thing holding up this skyscraper.
Is Burj Khalifa made of steel?
The challenge. Standing at a height of 828m Burj Khalifa in Dubai is, by a considerable margin, the tallest structure ever made by man. In total, 330,000m3 of concrete and 39,000 tonnes of steel rebar were used in constructing Burj Khalifa.
Who lives in Burj Khalifa top floor?
In India, BR Shetty is famous as the man who owns all the apartments on the 100th and 140th floors of Dubai’s iconic Burj Khalifa, which he is said to have acquired for a whopping $25 million.
Why is Burj Khalifa Y shaped?
In addition to its aesthetic and functional advantages, the spiralling “Y” shaped plan was utilized to shape the structural core of Burj Khalifa. This design helps to reduce the wind forces on the tower, as well as to keep the structure simple and foster constructability.
Architectural, Construction & Building Design
While the Burj Khalifa is exceptional in every way, it is its distinctive design that actually distinguishes it from the competition. The centerpiece of this new international capital drew the attention of the world’s most renowned designers, who were asked to participate in a design competition. After much deliberation, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (SOM) was granted the honor of designing the world’s highest tower. Adrian Smith FAIA, RIBA was selected as a consultant design partner and the firm’s Chicago branch was recognized as the global authority in ultra-tall buildings.
Featuring a triple-lobed footprint, which is an abstraction of the Hymenocallis flower, the architecture is striking. There are three main parts to the tower, which are placed around a central core. Its modular, Y-shaped design, which includes setbacks along each of its three wings, results in a structural layout that is intrinsically stable, as well as generous floor plates for residential use. As the tower spirals upward, the cross-section of the tower is gradually reduced by the 26 helical layers that make up the structure.
The views of the Arabian Gulf are maximized thanks to a Y-shaped floor design.
Wind Tunnel Testing
There were more than 40 wind tunnel experiments performed on the Burj Khalifa in order to determine what effect winds might have on the structure and its inhabitants. These varied from preliminary experiments to confirm Dubai’s wind environment to extensive structural analysis models and facade pressure tests, as well as microclimate studies of the impacts on terraces and surrounding the tower base. To assure safety at all times, even the temporary conditions that existed during the building stage were tested using the tower cranes mounted atop the tower.
It was necessary to conduct special studies on the Burj Khalifa skyscraper in order to establish the scope of the alterations that would have to be made to the structure’s design.
On the Burj Khalifa, more than 40 wind tunnel experiments were performed to determine the effects of the wind on the structure and its inhabitants. These varied from preliminary experiments to validate Dubai’s wind environment to big structural analysis models and facade pressure tests, as well as micro-climate studies of the impacts on terraces and surrounding the tower base, to name a few examples. In order to assure safety at all times, the tower cranes were used to examine even the temporary circumstances that existed throughout the building phase.
It was necessary to conduct specific studies on the Burj Khalifa skyscraper in order to identify the scope of the adjustments that would need to be made to the structure’s design.
The Chicago office of Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill LLP was also responsible for the interior design of the Burj Khalifa’s public sections, which was overseen by award-winning designer Nada Andric. It is made out of glass, stainless steel, and polished dark stones, as well as silver travertine flooring, Venetian plaster walls, handcrafted carpets, and natural stone floors. Taking inspiration from the surrounding culture, the interiors were designed with the building’s role as a worldwide symbol and dwelling in mind.
The Burj Khalifa and the adjacent Mohammed Bin Rashid Boulevard are adorned with more than 1,000 works of art created by notable Middle Eastern and worldwide artists. In order to pay respect to the spirit of world harmony, several of the pieces were commissioned by Emaar specifically for this purpose. The pieces were chosen as a method of connecting cultures and communities, which is indicative of the fact that the Burj Khalifa is the result of an international partnership.
Excavation work on the Burj Khalifa began in January 2004 and continued for the next nine years, during which time the project achieved several significant milestones on its way to becoming the world’s tallest man-made structure. It took only 1,325 days from the commencement of excavation work in January 2004 for the Burj Khalifa to surpass the Empire State Building as the world’s highest free-standing skyscraper.
Construction of the concrete and steel foundation, which has 192 piles dug more than 50 meters (164 feet) deep, required more than 110,000 tonnes of concrete and weighed more than 45,000 cubic meters (58,900 cubic yards). The building of the Burj Khalifa will have consumed 330,000 m3 (431,600 cu yd) of concrete and 39,000 tonnes (43,000 ST; 38,000 LT) of steel rebar, and it will have required 22 million man-hours to complete the structure. Burj Khalifa’s outside cladding was installed beginning in May 2007 and was finished in September 2009.
After starting with a rate of about 20 to 30 panels each day, the crew eventually increased that rate to as many as 175 panels per day during the last stages of installation.
The total weight of aluminum used in the construction of the Burj Khalifa is equivalent to the weight of five Airbus A380 aircraft, and the total length of stainless steel bull nose fins is 293 times the height of the Eiffel Tower in Paris, according to the International Organization for Standardization.
A vertical height of 601 metres may be reached.
During the pumping process to this height, the concrete pressure reached over 200 bars. The quantity of rebar utilized in the construction of the skyscraper totals 31,400 metric tons, which if stretched end to end would stretch more than a fourth of the way around the earth.
Burj Khalifa Construction Timeline
|January 2004||Excavation started|
|February 2004||Piling started|
|March 2005||Superstructure started|
|June 2006||Level 50 reached|
|January 2007||Level 100 reached|
|March 2007||Level 110 reached|
|April 2007||Level 120 reached|
|May 2007||Level 130 reached|
|July 2007||Level 141 reachedworld’s tallest building|
|September2007||Level 150 reachedworld’s tallest free-standingstructure|
|April 2008||Level 160 reachedworld’s tallest man-madestructure|
|January 2009||Completion of spireBurj Khalifa tops out|
|September2009||Exterior cladding completed|
|January 2010||Official launch ceremony|
What materials did they use for the Burj Khalifa? – SidmartinBio
Highlights of the construction process The building of the Burj Khalifa will have consumed 330,000 m3 (431,600 cu yd) of concrete and 39,000 tonnes (43,000 ST; 38,000 LT) of steel rebar, and it will have required 22 million man-hours to complete the structure. Burj Khalifa’s outside cladding was installed beginning in May 2007 and was finished in September 2009.
Is Burj Khalifa made of concrete?
A record-breaking 330,000 cubic meters (11.6 million cubic feet) of concrete was used in the construction of the Burj Khalifa, as was 39,000 metric tons of reinforced steel, 103,000 square meters (1.1 million square feet) of glass, 15,500 square meters (166,800 square feet) of embossed stainless steel, and 22 million man hours were spent on the project.
Which cement is used for making Burj Khalifa?
In the construction of the world’s tallest skyscrapers, such as Dubai’s Burj Khalifa, Elkem Microsilica® is utilized to provide the high strength concrete that is necessary for the construction of these structures. Elkem Microsilica® is utilized in this application as a cost-effective technique of increasing the compressive strength of the concrete mix while maintaining its durability.
Why is the Burj Khalifa made out of concrete?
Because of its reinforced concrete structure, it is far stronger than steel-frame buildings of same height. See also: Geotechnical Engineering and Environmental Engineering. Architects designed the structural concrete Burj Dubai to be “Y” shaped in plan in order to lessen wind pressures on the tower while also keeping the construction basic and encouraging constructibility.
Why was Burj al Arab built in Dubai?
It was envisioned in 1990 by the then Crown Prince Sheik Mohammed, as a response to the impending demise of Dubai’s oil-based economy, and it was completed in 1992. Through tourism and real estate development, he was determined to establish Dubai as the world’s most exclusive luxury vacation destination and playground for the wealthy, with the goal of diversifying Dubai’s economy.
What kind of Expressionism is in the Burj al Arab?
The Burj al Arab is characterized by structural expressionism, which simply means that the structural components of the structure are visible on both the interior and the outside of the building. This includes characteristics such as exposed truss work and complicated forms, among other things. BURJAL-ARAB
How did the Burj Khalifa get its name?
The Burj al Arab is characterized by structural expressionism, which implies that the structural components of the building are visible on both the interior and the outside of the structure. This includes characteristics such as exposed truss work and complicated forms on the inside and outside. BURJAL-ARAB
Structural Details of Burj Khalifa – Concrete Grade and Foundations
1 minute is allotted for reading The construction of the world’s tallest structure, the Burj Khalifa, took six years and was completed on January 4, 2010. It was officially opened on that day. The building is 828 meters tall, and the entire system is made of reinforced concrete tower structures. This was the first time in the history of the planet that a construction of such a high height was attempted.
Consequently, designers employed cutting-edge technology and structural design that was among the best and most inventive available. The structural characteristics of the Burj Khalifa are discussed in further detail in the next section. Figure 1: The Burj Khalifa
Burj Khalifa Project Details
The structure is located in the city of Dubai, in the country of the United Arab Emirates. The following are the structural characteristics:
- The skyscraper is 160 stories tall, with a podium building next. Have a six-story office building right next door
- There is a two-story pool facility nearby.
The skyscraper has a total floor space of 2,80,000 m2. This region is home to 700 residential flats that are spread throughout 45 to 108 story buildings. The remaining spaces are occupied by corporate officials up to and including the 160th level. The project is expected to cost a total of US$20 billion in total. The building of the skyscraper alone will cost $4.2 billion. The structural elements that were used, as well as their quantities, are listed below:
- The amount of concrete used was 250000 cubic meters
- The amount of glass and metal used for the curtain walls was 83,600 square meters and 27,900 square meters, respectively. Approximately 39,000 tons of steel rebar were used
- Approximately 22 million man-hours were spent.
Shape of the Tower
Burj Khalifa was designed by Adrian Smith, who was also responsible for its structural and architectural design. As seen in figure-2, the fundamental construction consists of a central hexagon core with three wings that are arranged in a cluster surrounding it. As you go up the tower, one wing at each tier gets moved backwards. As a result, the cross section decreases as one climbs the ladder. There are a total of 26 terraces in the building. Cross-sectional plan of the Burj Khalifa (see Fig.2)
Structural System of Burj Khalifa
The Burj Khalifa has a floor layout that is in the shape of a ‘Y.’ This plan offers improved performance as well as a panoramic view of the Persian Gulf. The design of the building, as well as the upward setbacks, assist in reducing the wind forces that are operating on the structure. After a series of wind tunnel testing, the final form was determined to be acceptable. The Buttressed Core System is the name given to the structural system that was used to construct the Burj Khalifa. The high-performance concrete wall used throughout the system is used to create the whole system.
- The center core has a stronger resistance to torsional resistance than the surrounding core.
- From the central core to the end of the wing, there are corridor walls that run the length of the building.
- These walls, which behave similarly to the web and flanges of the beams, provide resistance to wind shears and moments.
- Outrigger walls are used to link the perimeter columns to the mechanical floors, which are located above the mechanical floors.
- The depth of the outriggers is three storeys in height.
High PerformanceConcrete Used in Concrete
The high-performance concrete utilized in the construction of the Burj Khalifa ensures minimal permeability and increased durability. C80 and C60 cube strength concrete are utilized, with fly ash, Portland cement, and local aggregates being used into the mix. The C80 concrete is stated to have a young’s modulus of 43800N/mm 2 and to be able to withstand high loads. For this project, the world’s largest concrete pumps were employed to pump concrete to a maximum height of up to 600 meters in a single stage.
Because the temperature in the site (Dubai) is quite high, there was a possibility of fractures forming as a result of shrinking.
The addition of ice to the concrete mix allowed for the achievement of the necessary temperature. Because of the weight of the structure, it was necessary to utilize unique concrete mixtures in order to endure the enormous pressure. Before each batch was placed, it was thoroughly tested.
Foundation of Burj Khalifa
Surrounded by a massive reinforced concrete raft, the Burj Khalifa’s superstructure is supported by the ground. In turn, bored reinforced concrete piles provide support for the rafting system. The raft has a thickness of 3.7m and was built in four different pours to achieve this thickness. In this case, the self-consolidating concrete raft is of the grade C50. The total volume of concrete utilized in the raft is 12,500 cubic meters. There were a total of 194 piles utilized in this project. Piles measuring 1.5m in diameter and 43m in length were used to construct the structure.
- The concrete grade that was utilized in the piles was C60 SCC concrete that was set using the tremie technique.
- Cathodic protection was installed beneath the raft in order to mitigate the harmful effects of pollutants.
- Photographs taken during the construction phase More information may be found at: What are the advantages of using reinforced concrete as a structural construction material?
- Designing Reinforced Concrete Columns in an Economical Manner to Reduce Cost The Different Types of Concrete Pavements – Their Construction Details and Their Uses
Design, Construction and Structural Details of Burj al Khalifa
Beginning in January 2004, excavation work on the Burj Khalifa, the world’s highest skyscraper, began. Over the next decade, the project achieved a number of significant milestones, eventually becoming the tallest man-made structure the world has ever seen. It took only 1,325 days from the commencement of excavation work in January 2004 for the Burj Khalifa to surpass the Empire State Building as the world’s highest free-standing skyscraper.
Burj al Dubai – Now known as Burj Khalifa
The Burj Dubai Tower’s mission is not merely to be the world’s tallest structure; it is also to represent the world’s noblest ideals. The building’s superstructure rises to a height of more than 165 storeys. The building’s full height will be 2,717 feet when completed (828 meters). The height of the multi-use skyscraper has “comfortably” surpassed the former record holder, the 509 meter (1671 ft) tall Taipei 101, which held the previous record for the highest building in the world. The 280,000 m2 (3,000,000 ft2) reinforced concrete multi-use Burj Dubai tower has retail space, a Giorgio Armani Hotel, residential units, and office space.
There were challenging structural engineering challenges that required solving, as was the case with all super-tall structures.
Structural System Description
There are “refuge floors” at 25 to 30 story intervals in the Burj Khalifa, which are more fire resistant and have their own air supply in the event of an emergency. Because of its reinforced concrete structure, it is far stronger than steel-frame buildings of same height. See also: Geotechnical Engineering and Environmental Engineering Architects designed the structural concrete Burj Dubai to be “Y” shaped in plan in order to lessen wind pressures on the tower while also keeping the construction basic and encouraging constructibility.
- With its own high performance concrete corridor walls and perimeter columns, each wing buttresses the others through a central core with six sides, known as a hexagonal hub, which connects the two wings together.
- SOM used a strict geometry to the skyscraper, ensuring that all of the shared central core, wall, and column parts were in perfect alignment.
- In accordance with the Tower’s grid system, the setbacks are planned so that the building stepping is performed by matching columns above with walls below in order to give a smooth load passage.
- The setbacks are arranged in such a way that the breadth of the Tower varies with each setback.
Tower and podium constructions for the Khalifa are now under construction (see Figure 3), and the project is expected to be completed by 2008 (see Figure 4).
Burj’s Architectural Design
The fact that the Burj Dubai is located in the city of Dubai, United Arab Emirates, served as inspiration for the building’s shape, which was designed to blend cultural, historical, and organic characteristics unique to the region into its design.
Structural Analysis and Design Facts
The torsional resistance of the construction is provided by the central hexagonal reinforced concrete core walls, which are similar to those of a closed tube or axle. It is supported by wing walls and hammer head walls, which act as webs and flanges of a beam to withstand the wind shears and moments. The central hexagonal walls are buttressed by the wing walls and hammer head walls. In the mechanical floors, outriggers enable the columns to participate in the lateral load resistance of the structure; as a result, all of the vertical concrete is used to sustain both gravity and lateral loads.
The design of the concrete mix included the use of local aggregates.
The sizes of the walls and columns were optimized through the use of virtual work.
The reinforced concrete structure was developed in compliance with the standards of ACI 318-02 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete, which is published by the American Concrete Institute.
In order to mitigate the effects of differential column shortening caused by creep between the perimeter columns and the interior walls, the perimeter columns were sized so that the self-weight gravity stress on the perimeter columns was the same as the stress on the interior corridor walls on the interior corridor walls.
Because concrete shrinkage occurs more quickly in thinner walls or columns, the perimeter column thickness of 600mm (24″) was chosen to match the typical corridor wall thickness (similar volume to surface ratios) (Figure 5) in order to ensure that the columns and walls will generally shorten at the same rate as a result of concrete shrinkage (Figure 5).
Using the AISC Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings for guidance, the structural steel spire was built to withstand gravity, wind, earthquake, and fatigue loads as well as other environmental factors (1999).
The exposed steel on the outside has been covered with a flame sprayed aluminum coating.
Analysis for Gravity
Similarly to a closed tube or axle, the torsional resistance of the construction is provided by the hexagonal reinforced concrete core walls in the middle. Wing walls and hammer head walls support the center hexagonal walls, which act as the webs and flanges of a beam to withstand wind shears and moments. The center hexagonal walls are reinforced by wing walls and hammer head walls. In the mechanical floors, outriggers allow the columns to participate in the lateral load resistance of the structure; as a result, all of the vertical concrete is used to sustain both gravity and lateral loads.
- Concrete mix design made use of aggregates found in the area.
- Through the use of virtual work, the wall and column sizes were refined.
- Using the ACI 318-02 Building Code Specifications for Structural Concrete as a guide, the reinforced concrete structure was developed in compliance with its requirements.
- Because differential column shortening between the perimeter columns and the interior walls is caused by creep, the perimeter columns were designed and constructed so that the self-weight gravity stress on the perimeter columns was equal to the stress on the inner corridor walls.
Because concrete shrinkage occurs more quickly in thinner walls or columns, the perimeter column thickness of 600mm (24″) was chosen to match the typical corridor wall thickness (similar volume to surface ratios) (Figure 5) in order to ensure that the columns and walls will generally shorten at the same rate as a result of concrete shrinkage in the future.
Using the AISC Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings for guidance, the structural steel spire was built to withstand gravity, wind, earthquake, and fatigue loadings (1999).
Site Test and Analysis
The Dubai Municipality (DM) designates Dubai as a UBC97 Zone 2a seismic area (with a seismic zone facior Z = 0.15 and a soil profile Sc), according to the United Nations Convention on Seismic Zones. The seismic analysis included a site-specific response spectra analysis, which was performed on the site. In most cases, the design of the reinforced concrete Tower structure was not influenced by earthquake loads. The design of the reinforced concrete Podium structures as well as the structural steel spire of the Tower was influenced by seismic loads.
Max Irvine (of Structural MechanicsDynamics Consulting Engineers in Sydney, Australia) created site specific seismic assessments for the project, which included a seismic hazard study.
Irvine is an expert in structural mechanics and dynamics.
Additionally, the raft concrete was field tested prior to deployment using a flow table in addition to the conventional cube testing (Figure 10). L-boxes, V-boxes, and temperature are all included.
Burj Khalifa’s Foundations and Site Conditions
The Tower’s foundations are made out of a raft supported by piles. The solid reinforced concrete raft is 3.7 meters (12 feet) thick and was poured using self consolidating concrete with a cube strength of C50 (cube strength) (SCC). The raft was built in four (4) different pours over a period of time (three wings and the center core). Each raft pour took place over a minimum of a 24-hour time frame. There were typically 300mm spacing between reinforcement bars in the raft, with every 10lh bar in each direction being omitted.
- The Burj Tower raft is supported by 194 bored cast-in-place piles that were dug into the ground.
- The tower pile load test was able to support more than 6,000 tonnes (Figure 12).
- It is supported in the naturally cemented calcisiltite conglomeritic calcisiltite fomiations, which results in an ultimate pile skin friction of 250 to 350 kPa (2.6 to 3.6 tons/ft), depending on the kind of calcisiltite used.
- Phases 1 and 2 of the site geotechnical research were carried out on site:
- Phase I consists of 23 boreholes (three of which have pressuremeter testing) with depths ranging from 30m to 90m. Phase 2: Three boreholes are dug, with cross-hole geophysics being performed. Phase 3: 6 boreholes (two of which will be tested with a pressure meter) with depths of up to 60 meters
- The fourth phase consists of one borehole with cross-hole and down-hole gophysics at a depth of 140 meters.
3D foundation settlement analysis
Based on the findings of the geotechnical research and the pile load test results, a complete 3D foundation settlement analysis was carried out (by Hyder Consulting Ltd., UK). It was determined that the maximum long-term settlement would be approximately 80mm over a long period of time ” (3.1″). This settlement would be characterized by a gradual curvature of the top of grade across the entire large site. The average foundation settlement was 30mm while the construction was at Level 135 of the building ” (1.2″).
- Clyde Baker of STS Consultants, Ltd.
- Harry Poulos of Coffey Geosciences (Chicago, IL, USA) before being submitted (Sydney, Australia).
- It has been shown that the quantities of chloride and sulfate in groundwater are much greater than the ones in sea water.
- Using a triple mixture of 25 percent fly ash, 7 percent silicon fume, and a water-to-cement ratio of 0.32, the piles were built to a strength of 60 MPa.
- It was also developed as a fully self-consolidating concrete with a viscosity modifying additive and a slump flow of 675 +/- 75mm to reduce the likelihood of flaws occurring during the construction process.
- Specialized waterproofing systems, increased concrete cover, and the addition of corrosion inhibitors to the concrete mix were some of the measures that were put in place.
Cathodic protection system utilizing titanium mesh (Figure 13) with an impressed current and stringent crack control design criteria are used in combination.
In the case of a structure of this height and slenderness, the wind forces and consequent movements in the higher floors become significant considerations in the structural design of the building. Under the guidance of Dr. Peter Irwin of Rowan Williams Davies and Irwin Inc.’s (RWD1) boundary* layer wind tunnels in Guelph, Ontario, an intensive program of wind tunnel testing and other investigations was carried out (Figure 14). Rigid-model force balancing experiments, foil multidegree of freedom aero elastic model studies, measurements of localized pressures, pedestrian wind environment investigations, and wind climatic testing were all part of the wind tunnel program.
The aeroelastic and force balancing investigations were carried out primarily with models at a size of 1:500.
Nick Isyumov of the University of Western Ontario’s Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory provided peer assessment of the RWDI’s wind engineering.
ComFlor®Quote Text from a commercial case study. The use of innovative design solutions enabled the installer to begin laying the decking, floor by floor, at such a significant height, and to do so safely. ComFlor 80’s long span characteristics allowed for a reduction in the amount of structural steel components that were required. Following the picture box is some text. Skidmore, Owings and Merrill was the architect. Hyundai Construction, Besix, and Arabtec were the primary contractors, with Hyder Consulting and GHD serving as consulting engineers.
ComFlor® 80 is the decking system.
The Burj Khalifa in Dubai, which stands at an impressive 828 meters in height, is by a wide margin the highest structure ever built by man. The finished skyscraper, which was constructed by Emaar Properties, has an Armani hotel as well as 900 homes. 1.2 million sq.ft. of beautifully landscaped man-made park surrounds it, with six beautiful water features visible from the building. For the construction of the Burj Khalifa, a total of 330,000m 3of concrete and 39,000 tonnes of steel rebar were utilized.
The composite flooring system ComFlor® 80 was put on the top of the Burj Khalifa, covering more than 4,000m2 of space. The initial designs called for a 76mm-deep deck, but after learning about the advantages of ComFlor® 80, the customer decided to alter his mind. Beyond its exceptional quality, the long span capabilities of ComFlor® 80 result in cost savings during the total building process by lowering the amount of structural steel components that must be used. ‘Imaginative design solutions were produced that enabled the installer to begin laying the decking, floor by floor, at such a significant height,’ explains Haydar Ibrahim, General Manager of Business Development and Technical Marketing at Tata Steel Middle East, who worked closely with the fabricators (Eversendai Engineering) and the consulting engineers on the project.
” The opportunity to be a part of such a historic undertaking has given us great pleasure.”
Built 828 meters above the city of Dubai, the Burj Khalifa, the world’s tallest structure, is a marvel of design and engineering that has pushed the boundaries of skyscraper construction to their utmost. Facts and Figures about the Project
- Status Construction is complete
- Completion is scheduled for 2010
- Design completion is scheduled for 2006. Site Dimensions: 104,210 square meters The height of the building is 828 meters. The total number of stories is 163. Building Gross Area: 454,249 square meters
- Rentable Area: 34,750.00 square meters
- Condo Units: 577
- Rooms: 304
- Total: 454,249 square meters Awards The Chicago Athenaeum presented the American Architecture Award in 2010. Interior Architecture Award: Special Recognition, 2011, Interior Architecture Award: Special Recognition, Interior Architecture Award: Certificate of Merit, given by the AIA – Chicago Chapter in 2011. Architects of the Interiors – Chicago Chapter2011, Excellence in Engineering Excellence in Structural Engineering: Most Innovative Structure, ASHRAE – Illinois Chapter2010, Excellence in Structural Engineering: Most Innovative Structure, The Illinois Structural Engineers Association is a professional organization that represents structural engineers in Illinois. The Chicago Athenaeum awarded the International Architecture Award in 2010. Citation of Merit for Distinguished Building, 2011, Distinguished Building Award AIA – Chicago Chapter2010, Award for Commercial or Retail Structure, Institution of Structural Engineers2010, Award: Shortlisted, AIA – Chicago Chapter2010, Award for Residential Structure Best Mixed-Use Built Development at the World Architecture Festival in 2010, Abu Dhabi’s urban landscape In 2010, the Arab Achievement Award for the Best Architecture Project was given out during the Arab Investment Summit. Best Tall Building in the Middle East in 2010 Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) 2010 Best Structural Design of the Year, awarded to a building in Africa. In the LEAF Awards 2010, the following award was given: Shortlisted / Structural System. World Architecture Festival2010, Project of the Year, Middle East Architect Magazine2010, International Projects Category: Outstanding Project, National Council of Structural Engineers Association2010, Commercial / Mixed Use Built, Middle East Architect Magazine2010, Middle East Architect Magazine2010, Middle East Architect Magazine2010, Middle East Architect Magazine2010, Middle East Architect Magazine2010, Middle East Architect Magazine2010, Middle East Architect Magazine2010, Middle East Architect Magazine2010, Middle East Architect Magazine2010, Middle East Architect Magazine2010 Cityscape 2010 Global Icon Award from the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH). 2010 Architecture Award from the American Institute of Architects (Mixed Use) Architecture Award at the Arabian Property Awards 2010 in Dubai (Mixed Use) Runner-up at the Arabian Property Awards 2010, Silver Award for the Arabian Region. Spark Awards2010, Special Recognition for Technological Advancement, are given out annually to recognize individuals and organizations that have made significant contributions to the advancement of technology. International Highrise Awards2010, The International Architecture Award (Mixed Use), International Commercial Property Awards2010, Best of What’s New, International Commercial Property Awards2010, International Commercial Property Awards2010, International Commercial Property Awards2010, International Commercial Property Awards2010, International Commercial Property Awards2010, International Commercial Property Awards2010, International Commercial Property Awards2010, International Commercial Property Awards2010, International Commercial Property Awards2010, International Commercial Property Awards2010, International Commercial Property Awards2010, International Commercial Property Awards2010, International Commercial Property Awards2010, International Commercial Property Awards2010 A well-known science magazine Project of the Year in 2011, according to the American Planning Association Meed2011 was named the GCC Technical Building Project of the Year in 2011. In the Meed2011 competition, the Best of Category/Mixed Use Buildings was awarded. International Interior Design Association (IIDA) Decade of Design2011, Presidential Commendation in Corporate Space Small, International Interior Design Association (IIDA) Decade of Design2010 International Interior Design Association (IIDA) Decade of Design2010, Skyscraper Award: Silver Medal, International Interior Design Association (IIDA) Decade of Design2010, Emporis2011, Design Excellence Award: Special Function Room, First Place, Emporis2011, Design Excellence Award: Special Function Room, Second Place, The Illinois Chapter of the American Society of Interior Designers World Voices Sculpture, Burj Khalifa Lobby, received an Award of Merit in 2012. The Illinois Structural Engineers Association is a professional organization that represents structural engineers in Illinois. The 2013 Award of Excellence was given to Regional Design Award: Architecture, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) – Architectural Engineering Institute (AEI)2013, Best Overall Project, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) – Architectural Engineering Institute (AEI)2013, Architizer A+ Award: Residential High Rise Finalist, Architizer2014
- And American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) – Architectural Engineering Institute (AEI)2013, Best Overall Project. Regional Design Award: Interior Architecture, presented by the AIA – Middle East Chapter in 2014. AIA – Middle East Chapter2015, 50 Significant Structures in 50 Years, AIA – Middle East Chapter2015, The Illinois Structural Engineers Association is a professional organization that represents structural engineers in Illinois. The International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering’s Outstanding Structure Award was given in 2011. The Council for Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) will present the Best Building 10 Year Award in 2019. The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) will present the Best Building 10 Year Award in 2020. RobertsPartners Pelton Marsh Kinsella is a fictional character created by author Pelton Marsh Kinsella (Pmk Consultants) Walker Parking Consultants is a company that specializes in parking management. The Dewar Partnership is a partnership between two companies that have a common goal. Rowan Williams Davies is a British author and poet who lives in the United Kingdom. Irwin & Sons, Inc. (RWDI) Rnl Design is an acronym that stands for Rnl Design. The Burj Khalifa is the tallest building in the world. Rolf JensenAssociates, Inc. is a professional services firm. Fisher Marantz Stone is a musical instrument. Hyder Consulting Me Ltd. is a private limited company incorporated in England and Wales (Middle East) Citadel Consulting is a consulting firm that specializes in strategic planning, business development, and marketing.
The geometry of a regional desert flower, as well as the patterning systems incorporated in Islamic architecture, served as inspiration for the design of the tower. The tower, which is constructed of reinforced concrete and is coated in glass, is formed of sculpted volumes that are grouped around a central buttressed core. Its mass is reduced as it rises from a flat base, as setbacks occur in an upward spiraling pattern, which lessens the overall mass as it ascends to the sky. The central core of the building emerges at the pinnacle and is sculpted into the shape of a spire.
An artwork by artist Jaume Plensa, named “World Voices,” can be seen in the residential lobby.
A special piece of equipment mounted in the ceiling drips water onto the cymbals, creating an ambient soundscape in the reception area.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the Burj Khalifa?
The Burj Khalifa and the Khalifa It is also called Khalifah, and it is a mixed-use skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, that is the world’s highest building, according to all three of the primary criteria by which such structures are assessed (seeResearcher’s Note: Heights of Buildings). The Burj Khalifa (also known as the “Khalifa Tower”), also known as the “Burj Dubai” during construction, was formally named in honor of Sheikh Khalifa ibn Zayed Al Nahyan, the ruler of the neighboring emirate of Abu Dhabi.
- The tower, whose planned height was kept a tightly guarded secret during its construction, was completed at 162 floors and a height of 2,717 feet.
- A Chicago architectural company, Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill, was tasked with designing the building.
- Baker as a structural engineer.
- Engineers tackle real-life challenges across the world, such as how to build aircraft, buildings, and suspension bridges, by using their knowledge and skills.
- Built on a three-lobed footprint that is an abstract depiction of the native Hymenocallisflower, the structure is modular in design and constructed of prefabricated components.
- It is supported by a sequence of wings, each having its own concrete core and perimeter columns, which surround the hexagonal center core.
- The central core emerges at the summit of the tower and is completed with an extension that extends more than 700 feet into the sky (200 metres).
- During construction, the tower was supported by a reinforced concrete mat almost 13 feet (4 metres) thick, which was in turn supported by concrete piles measuring 5 feet (1.5 metres) in diameter at the fundamental level.
- The outer cladding of the skyscraper is made up of aluminum and stainless-steel panels, vertical stainless-steel tube fins, and more than 28,000 hand-cut glass panels, among other materials.
- In January 2010, the Burj Khalifa easily overtook the Taipei 101 building in Taipei, Taiwan, which stood at 1,667 feet (508 metres) tall and was the world’s tallest structure at the time of its opening.
Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica Adam Zeidan was the author of the most recent revision and update to this article.
10 Fun Facts about the Burj Khalifa
Our travels have taken us to some of the world’s most notable record-breaking locations, including the world’s largest pumpkin festival, the world’s northernmost city, and the world’s largest wine barrel. No surprise therefore that stepping on the viewing deck of the Burj Khalifa was also on our bucket list of things to do in the world. Not only is the Burj Khalifa the world’s tallest structure, but it also smashes a number of other world records in the process. Here are 10 fun facts about the Burj Khalifa we discovered during our tour that we hope also motivate you to travel to the top of the world’s tallest structure.
Before you leave, make sure you have your skip the line tickets.
The Burj Khalifa towers over Dubai at an incredible 828 meters (2716 ft) in height, towering over the city.
If the parts are laid end to end, they would reach more than a fifth of the way around the planet.
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photograph taken from the Burj Khalifa’s observation deck, with data lazy src=” of the Dubai Fountain The Burj Khalifa not only holds the global record for being the tallest skyscraper on the planet, but it also owns six other world records in other categories.
It also has the world’s tallest service elevator, which is the world’s tallest service elevator, and having the world’s longest travel distance elevator.
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From the top of the Burj Khalifa, you can see all the way to the coast of Dubai and the Persian Gulf.
One of the most mind-blowing Burj Khalifa statistics is the sheer weight of the materials used to construct the structure.
The entire weight of aluminum utilized in the construction of the Burj Khalifa is equal to the weight of five Airbus A380 passenger jets.
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- Every 30 minutes from 6pm Wednesday through Sunday4, the Dubai Fountain performs in front of the Burj Khalifa.
- Every year, 15 million gallons of water are gathered in an environmentally friendly manner.
- The elevators of the Burj Khalifa move at a speed of 10 meters per second, making them among the fastest elevators in the world.
Data-image-caption=”Craning our necks to gaze up at the sphere from ground level” data-image-caption=”Craning our necks to look up at the sphere from ground level” alt=”Looking up at the sphere from the ground level” width=”750″ height=”500″ src=”data:image/svg+xml, percent 3Csvg, percent 20s tallest structure.
It is truly a multi-use structure that contains restaurants, a hotel, residential apartments, office space, and is a tourist attraction due to the observation decks on the top floor and the observation deck on the bottom floor. Are you ready to pay a visit?
Know Before You Go
- Available from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m. Sunday through Wednesday, and 10 a.m. to midnight Thursday through Saturday, the observation deck is open to the public. The final admittance is 45 minutes before closing
- There is a free bag check at the entrance
- Just be sure to pick up your baggage on the way out (fortunately, I remembered before we went too far away.)
- There is a free bag check near the entrance
- And there is a free bag check near the entrance. The observation deck is reached from the lower floor of the Dubai Mall near the food court
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Confusing The Wind: The Burj Khalifa, Mother Nature, and the Modern Skyscraper
The Grand Hyatt San Francisco will greet you at the front desk with a friendly note informing you that the 35-story skyscraper may creak slightly as it moves gently back and forth in the wind. The hotel has assured guests that this anomaly is not indicative of a structural concern, but tourists have still voiced their dissatisfaction with the situation. According to one angry and restless client who left a review of the hotel, “the building CREAKS!” 1 “It sounds like you’re aboard a ship that’s been around for a while,” comments another.
Since the completion of the 10-story steel-framed Home Insurance Building in Chicago in 1885, which was the world’s first skyscraper, architects have had to consider wind stress, also known as “wind loading,” as they’ve raised the height of their structures.
When completed, the Burj Khalifa, originally known as the Burj Dubai, will soar into the sky as if it were a bolt of lightning, dwarfing the neighboring towers in its path.
(In comparison, the Burj is roughly equal in height to the Taipei 101, with the Chrysler building placed on top.) The tower, which stretches more than half a mile from its base to the tip of its spire, redefines the term “supertall,” which is typically applied to skyscrapers that rise more than 1,000 feet above the ground.
- Building’s spire is composed of multiple different stalks, each of which rises unevenly from the ground surrounding the center spire.
- Even with this strategic design, the 206-story Burj Khalifa will continue to sway slowly back and forth by approximately 2 meters at the very top of the structure.
- 4 The Taipei 101 skyscraper, which rises 1,667 feet tall and is located almost four thousand miles away near the coast of Taiwan, is now a distant second.
- The sphere, which is gold in hue and weighs 730 tons, softly swings back and forth, balancing the tower against the forces of the wind and insuring the comfort of those who inhabit it.
- Because of the height and mass of each individual tower, the size and shape of each damper must be “tuned” to compensate.
- It works in the same way that shock absorbers on a car soften road bumps by swinging or sliding back and forth in the opposite direction.
- 6 According to Carol Willis, director and curator of the Skyscraper Museum in New York, while designing a skyscraper, care for the wind must be taken into account.
- Designers fight a never-ending battle against the relentless wind by employing both structural and mechanical solutions, such as the Burj Khalifa’s method of “confusing the wind,” and mechanical solutions, such as the tuned mass damper.
- Gravitational forces can only pull a skyscraper in one direction, and it’s a predictable one at that: down.
- When a structure is designed properly, it may be thought of as a “big sail” that has a large surface area against which the wind can force.
8 ‘This results in a regular, or periodic, force,’ says Garber, “that pulls the building from one side to the other across the direction of the wind flow.’ The frequency at which this occurs will vary depending on wind speed, and if those vortices can coincide with the frequency at which the building want to vibrate, then some really enormous forces can be created.” Buildings, like a guitar string, have a natural or resonance frequency at which they are prone to vibrate, similar to the frequency of a guitar string.
- Wind vortices will only have a major impact on a structure if the frequency of the vortices is precisely aligned with the frequency of the building, much as an opera singer must reach the proper pitch in order to break a wine glass.
- As a result of this phenomenon, one of the most important goals in skyscraper design is to disrupt the ordered flow of wind around the structure.
- Due to the fact that all of those things can’t take place at the same time, you’re left with a very little amount of vortex shedding.” If the wind stress caused by vortex shedding is not appropriately controlled, it has the potential to cause significant structural damage or even collapse.
- When skyscrapers are designed, engineers take into consideration a 50- or 100-year return rule.
- Designers then boost the strength of the structure by an additional 60 percent or so, just to be safe, to allow for the possibility of measurement errors.
- 9 Still, wind stress can cause a variety of issues in high-rise buildings of all shapes and sizes.
- Additionally, it might provide a swaying sensation that is disconcerting, if not nauseous.
“If the building is moving too much, you can hear it creaking.” “Excessive motions, on the other hand, are the most frequently expressed concerns.” People may report that they can feel the building shifting, or they may even become ill as a result of the movement.” At least such was the situation at the previous GulfWestern headquarters in New York City.
Additional complaints came from office workers on the top levels who were experiencing motion sickness when the wind picked up speed.
11 Indeed, steps to counteract the wind are done as much for the sake of comfort as they are for the sake of safety.
“People are more sensitive to wind than structures are,” says the author.
Not only do wind speeds increase with altitude, but the force of the wind also increases with the square of its velocity, as can be seen in the graph below.
“The amount of motion you’d anticipate in a structure,” adds Garber, “is on the order of 1/200 to 1/500 times its height.” This translates into approximately two to four meters in height for the Burj Khalifa.
Therefore, one of the primary concerns of architects and engineers is acceleration, which has the potential to produce observable forces on the human body.” Forces are frequently expressed in terms of “g’s” in the context of carnival rides, automobiles, and airplanes.
We’re talking about milli-of g’s force when it comes to gazing at skyscrapers, adds Garber.
Humans are capable of sensing accelerations as small as 5 to 25 milligs, which is far less than the maximum force that the structure can withstand.
During the initial design phase of a skyscraper, it is subjected to extensive wind tunnel testing.
(RWDI), a world-renowned wind engineering consulting firm, has been in charge of the testing.
Wind engineering specialists are provided with detailed architectural blueprints of the project prior to construction, and a team at RWDI goes to work developing a complicated, stiff scale model for testing.
For example, the 1:500 scale model of the Burj Khalifa contains 1,140 separate pressure taps for collecting data on the wind speed and direction.
Instead of testing airplane wings, sporting equipment, and other small projects in wind tunnels, these boundary layer wind tunnels are designed to simulate changes in wind speed with height and can replicate the variable wind environments in which the buildings will eventually be built.
Afterwards, all of this information is fed into computer models, which are used to conduct additional analysis.
In the end, this procedure of wind testing gives structural engineers with a more sophisticated understanding of wind loads than they would otherwise have. Continued on the following page »