As stated previously in this article, expatriates and immigrants account for 88.52%. Emiratis make up remaining 11.48% of the population. South Asians, which include people from India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and other South Asian nations, compose 59.48% of the population.
- How many immigrants live in Dubai? O ut of the total 9.2 million people who live in UAE, 7.8 million of them are immigrants (McPhillips 2017), that’s almost 90% of the population. And the UAE is especially tight in granting citizenship to immigrants. What is the most race in Dubai?
How many immigrants are in UAE?
From 2015 to 2020, the net number of migrants in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) was 200 thousand, down from 270 thousand between 2010 and 2015. From 2015 to 2020, the forecasted net migration rate per 1,000 population in the UAE was 4.2.
What is the majority race in Dubai?
Approximately 85% of the expatriate population (and 71% of the emirate’s total population) was Asian (chiefly Indian, Pakistani, Filipino, Bangladeshi and Sri Lankan). About 25% of the population have Iranian origin. About 3% of the total population of Dubai was categorized as “Western”.
Does Dubai accept immigrants?
Entry into the UAE is subject to immigration approval. All visas are valid to enter Dubai for 60 days from the date of issue, except the 96‑hour and 48‑hour visas, which are valid for 30 days from the date of issue.
What percentage of Dubai residents are UAE citizens?
Approximately 88.52% of the UAE’s population is made up of expatriates. Emiratis or UAE citizens account for the remaining 11.48%. Residents from the Indian subcontinent make up the largest proportion of expatriates in the UAE.
What percent of UAE population is Emirati?
Emiratis constitute roughly 20% of the total population, making UAE home to one of the world’s highest percentage of expatriates. Indians and Pakistanis form the largest expatriate groups in the country, constituting 28% and 12% of the total population respectively.
What percentage of the UAE is immigrants?
UAE has the world’s highest net migration rate, with nearly 88.52% of population composed of expatriates and immigrants.
Why are there more males than females in UAE?
Currently the UN calculates the UAE population at 9.69 million, or 94th in the world and slightly higher than the official UAE number. The UAE’s imbalance of men to women is a result of the country’s high dependence on foreign male labour especially in the construction industries.
How many Chinese are in Dubai?
There are approximately 180,000 Chinese people in the United Arab Emirates, 150,000 of which are in Dubai. Many Chinese expatriates hail from the Wenzhou region; they are mostly businessmen and merchants who run hundreds of commodity shops through the Emirates.
Can foreigners join UAE army?
United Arab Emirates In particular, Arab nationals and citizens of other Muslim countries serves with the UAE armed forces in the role of non-uniformed officers. Now, the country also hiring ex. Gurkhas from Nepal.
Can I live in Dubai permanently?
One can obtain residency in Dubai or in another emirate in UAE if sponsorship by an employer is provided. The Dubai residence visa must be renewed every three years. Another way to obtain residency in Dubai is by purchasing real estate.
Will UAE ever give citizenship?
Provisions allowing foreigners to acquire the Emirati nationality. In January 2021, the UAE Government approved amendments to the ‘Executive Regulation of the Citizenship and Passports Law’ (page in Arabic) allowing specific categories of foreigners, their spouses and children to acquire the Emirati nationality.
Why do so many Brits live in Dubai?
The handling of Covid coupled with a tax-free environment and a lifestyle that can’t be offered in the UK is why we have seen so much demand from British expats. There are more than 120,000 British citizens living in the UAE, the British Business Group in Dubai and the Northern Emirates reported.
How many Brits live in Dubai?
An estimated 240,000 Britons live in Dubai and many British tourists choose to holiday in the Gulf state.
How many Indians are in Dubai?
In fact, middle- and working-class Indians are the quintessential Dubai residents — there are over 1.5 million Indians in the United Arab Emirates today; they are the largest national group in the country, and with other South Asians make up the majority of the work force; and over two thirds of the Indian population
Infographic: Immigrants Account For 88% Of The UAE’s Population
According to the United Nations Population Division, an international migrant is someone who has lived in a country other than the one in which he or she was born for a period of one year or more and has no intention of returning. Consider the following: which nations and territories have the biggest proportion of migrants in the world at the moment? The Pew Research Center presented the most latest data in 2017, which was collected from several sources. It demonstrates that the Middle East is home to the three nations with the largest proportion of migrant workers.
Every one of the three nations is largely reliant on migrant labor, the majority of whom are of Asian descent, mostly from India and the Philippines.
The following report URL will be used as a reference link:
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How the United Arab Emirates, a Country of 90 Percent Immigrants, Handles Immigration
The United States’ policy to welcoming immigrants from the Middle East has received a great deal of attention. Countries in the Gulf States, on the other hand, are intimately aware with the difficulties and possibilities that immigrants face: The area boasts among of the world’s greatest rates of immigration as a percentage of its population, according to the United Nations. Several countries, including Kuwait and Qatar, which both have an immigrant population of nearly 75%, as well as many people from neighboring Gulf States and the broader Middle East, see this as a huge economic opportunity.
As he put it, “Not only is Arab emigration twice as high as the world average, but it has also experienced recent growth, and the potential for future expansion appears to be equally high.” Because of the country’s economic attractiveness and public infrastructure, the United Arab Emirates, which is quickly growing, is at the top of the regional immigration list – migrants account for about 90 percent of the country’s population, owing to the country’s rapid development.
- Those looking for job are welcome to enter the United Arab Emirates.
- However, in recent years, the system has begun to evolve.
- The outcomes are a mixed bag.
- Visas are only valid for a short period of time and must be renewed on a regular basis.
- It is interesting to note that the wordKafala also refers to the system of child adoption.
- However, parents may “sponsor” a kid, which means they guarantee the welfare of and accept responsibility for the child.
In addition to providing you with visas for your family, according to Joel Elecho, an immigrant from Uganda, “once the company gives you a promotion and a pay hike, they also provide you with visas for your family,” he explained — visas that can last anywhere from one to three years, depending on the nature of the work.
- By taking advantage of the UAE’s flexible visa regulations, immigrant employees are able to earn far more than they would have earned in their home countries and are able to transfer the money they have made back to their family.
- Accordin to a World Bank report published in 2016, the six Gulf Cooperation Countries, which include the United Arab Emirates, accounted for $98 billion in outward foreign remittances in 2014.
- The Kafalasystem, on the other hand, is far from ideal.
- According to Migrant-Rights.org, this method effectively provides sponsors with legal authority over their employees: Workers are unable to change employment, quit occupations, or leave the nation unless they get permission from their employer.
- Workers whose employers cancel their residency visas are frequently forced to leave the country through deportation processes, and many of them wind up spending time in prison as punishment.
- “Sometimes the firms have an excessive amount of electricity,” Elecho explained.
- Also in 2012, the UAE’s government initiated an Emiratisation program in order to address structural divides in the country’s labor market.
Employers in the private sector, such as Injazat and the Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank, have also cooperated with government programs to expand job prospects for UAE citizens and residents.
In part, this is due to the rhetoric used in the government’s Vision 2021 project, which emphasizes the need of a “cohesive society and retained identity,” among other things.
According to Giulia Senigaglia, education coordinator of the Sheik Muhammed Centre for Cultural Understanding, the experience was “wonderful.” “My children have arrived.
A two-month amnesty scheme was launched by the federal government in December 2012, which allowed undocumented migrant workers to either regularize their circumstances or leave the country without being prosecuted.
“Unlike in the past, immigrants are now able to own property.
According to the report, “However, if a migrant worker wishes to quit his current employment in search of a more promising future, his capacity to do so remains contingent on his existing sponsor.”
UAE No Paradise for Migrant Workers
A sparkling metropolis emerging from the desert has all the hallmarks of a mirage, and many people who travel to the United Arab Emirates for employment are well aware that they must maintain it that way at all times. According to Karen Young, who worked as a political science lecturer at the American University of Sharjah from 2009 to 2014, “it’s a requirement of the deal.” “Foreigners make valuable contributions to society, but they are not considered members of that community.” The United Arab Emirates is the country with the highest concentration of migrant population in the world.
- The citizenship of just a handful of foreigners has been awarded since the nation earned independence from the United Kingdom in 1971.
- However, analysts maintain that the existing system is profitable for the majority of companies and employees, and that migrant workers are fully aware of what they are getting themselves into.
- There was, nevertheless, a rift.
- “Preferential hiring that would be grounds for a lawsuit in the United States is totally acceptable in Canada,” she argues.
In the words of Syed Ali, sociology professor and author of “Dubai: Gilded Cage,” “Dubai has an economy that is founded on an illusion.” He claims that there is a “unwritten contract” between a country with limited natural resources and the foreign labor that is brought in to fill the void, and that this contract is effective as long as everyone adheres to the unspoken rules of the game.
- The kafala, or sponsorship, system is used throughout the UAE to formalize the terms of the employment contract.
- In recent years, Amnesty International and other humanitarian organizations have drawn attention to the difficulties that migrant workers have experienced, such as exploitation of construction workers and inadequate protection for women and domestic workers in the workplace.
- However, improvements have been slow in coming, particularly in the labor market.
- Now, analysts believe, internal and foreign factors are forcing the young nation to progressively rethink its approach to its second significant resource: human capital.
- Despite having the world’s most migrant-heavy population, the United Arab Emirates is extremely resistant to awarding citizenship, which has been shown to increase salaries for both natives and immigrants, according to research.
- The results of a recent study revealed that more than 80 percent of Emiratis believe their country should be more open to immigration, which is a substantial increase from the global average of about 60 percent.
- ‘There isn’t a situation in which the UAE would want more migrants to become nationals,’ Young asserts.
Researchers Froilan T.
and Safa Ghafoor conducted a review of domestic work legislation across Gulf Coast countries and discovered that, despite ongoing review, policy measures are not coherent or strong enough to mitigate labor violations, undermining both the effectiveness and the stability of institutions.
“They are inflating the prospects at the origin level,” says the native of the Philippines, which is one of the UAE’s most important sources of migrant labor.
The report was written for the International Organization for Migration (IOM) in 2016.
Some experimental programs go even farther in making the transfer of a person obvious, allowing a native to shadow a talented migrant worker before taking over for them.
Over the years, there have been fluctuations in the countries from which the UAE’s migrants have migrated, as well.
The migrants have found a way to integrate into a country that refuses to grant them citizenship despite the differences between them.
For Indian migrants and many others, communities with familiar language, clothing, cuisine, and religious places are hardly a substitute for home; Bollywood movies, for example, are often released on the same day as the film’s release, according to Vora.
“But the real question is, what are they integrating into?” says the author.
UAE Population Statistics 2020 – Total, Nationality, Migrants, Gender
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a nation in the Persian Gulf located in the Middle East. It is made up of seven emirates: Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah, and Umm Al Quwain. It is a federation of seven emirates. It has seen substantial transformations in recent years. One of the most striking is a significant growth in the country’s overall population.
Total Population of the UAE
According to the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the total population of the United Arab Emirates in 2020 will be 9,890,400 people. The population of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) was 277,463 at the time of its founding in 1971. During the next decade, the yearly rate of population increase hovered around 15 percent per annum. Every year during the 1980s and 1990s saw a growth in the population of around 6 percent. Between 2005 and 2009, double-digit growth rates were seen again.
The massive gains in population can be due to the large number of migrants that have arrived in the United Arab Emirates.
A large number of foreign workers have been brought in to work on the construction of skyscrapers and new hotels, notably in Dubai and Abu Dhabi.
Workers from the hotel and hospitality industries have relocated to serve them.
|Year||Total Population||Increase in Population||Increase in Population(%)|
The most populous cities in the UAE are Dubai and Abu Dhabi. According to the Dubai Statistics Center (which is a division of the Dubai Government), the city’s population has risen to more than 3.3 million people. Every year, the Abu Dhabi Statistics Centre publishes the Statistical Yearbook of Abu Dhabi, which is available online. The Statistical Yearbook of Abu Dhabi 2019 is the most recent publication available at the time of writing (in January 2020). According to this, the population of Abu Dhabi was predicted to be 2,908,173 in the beginning of 2016.
UAE Population Breakdown by Gender
According to United Nations statistics, the male population in the United Arab Emirates will reach 6,836,349 in 2020, accounting for 69 percent of the overall population. In 2020, the UAE will have a female population of 3,054,051, accounting for 31 percent of the total population. The vast majority of migrants are men who do not come to the UAE with their families, according to statistics. Male construction workers who live in labor camps constitute a large proportion of the workforce. The population of the United Arab Emirates from 1971 to 2020 is depicted in the table and graph below, broken down by gender.
|Year||Males||Females||TotalPopulation||Males (%)||Females (%)|
Migrants in the UAE
According to the International Migrant Stock Report 2019 published by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, there were 8,587,256 migrants in the United Arab Emirates as of 2019.
The overall number of migrants in the United Arab Emirates accounts for an astounding 87.9 percent of the country’s total population. Local Emiratis are a minority in their own country, and they face discrimination. Males constituted 6,326,020 of the total number of migrants, or 74% of the total.
|Year||Migrants (Males)||Migrants (Females)||Total Migrants||Migrants Males (%)||Migrants Females (%)||Total UAE Population||% Migrants|
The majority of Indian expatriates in the United Arab Emirates are of Indian origin. India accounts for over 40% of the total number of migrants in the United Arab Emirates. Additionally, there are considerable Asian populations living in the nation, including Indonesians, Bangladeshi Pakistani and Filipino immigrants; Turks; Yemenis; Jordanians; Sri Lankans; Kuwaitis; Palestinian Arabs; Syrians; and Lebanese; and Nepali immigrants. Egyptians are the biggest group of people from Africa. Sudanese and Eritreans are also in big numbers in the country.
The British are the largest ethnic group in Europe.
|Country||Number of Migrants||Percentage|
|State of Palestine||57,445||0.67|
|Syrian Arab Republic||52,142||0.61|
|United States of America||15,390||0.18|
UAE Population by Age
More than half of the population of the United Arab Emirates is between the ages of 25 and 49. An explanation for this disparity might be found in the huge number of expatriates who fall within this age bracket.
|Age Group||Total Population||Population Males||Population Females||Male to Female Ratio|
Dubai Population 2022 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs)
Dubai is the capital city of the Emirate of Dubai and is situated in the United Arab Emirates. It is the world’s most visited city. Dubai is situated on the eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, near the southwest corner of the Arabian Gulf, and is the financial capital of the region. Recognized as the Middle East’s economic capital and a city with a rich cultural heritage, this worldwide metropolis is also noted for its beaches, sunny weather, deserts, and welcoming people. It is also known for its hospitality.
It was estimated that Dubai had a population of more than 2.5 million people in 2016, and the city is likely to continue to grow at a steady pace in the years to come.
It is only second to Abu Dhabi, which represents 87 percent of the country’s total area and shares borders with Dubai.
City Size and Population Density
A total of 4,114 square kilometers of metropolitan area surrounds the city boundaries, which amount to around 35 sq km for the city limits. It is estimated that there are around 762.6 people living per square kilometer of land area in the metropolitan region.
In terms of population, Dubai is predicted to have a total population of 2,504,000 people as of 2016. In the United Arab Emirates, this makes it the most populous emirate, surpassing Abu Dhabi, which has the third biggest population in the country despite having a greater land area and a population that is estimated to be slightly more than 1.1 million. Females outnumber men by a factor of nearly 7 to 1, making up around 75 percent of the population of Dubai. A further feature of the population is that it is only constituted of 15 percent local inhabitants, with the remaining 85 percent consisting of expats.
- Besides Pakistan, Bangladesh, and the Philippines, other Asians in Dubai are originally from Pakistan (17%), Bangladesh (9%) and the Philippines (5%).
- In addition, the city has a big number of Somalis, and British expatriates constitute the highest proportion of Western expats in the city.
- Religions practiced by minorities in Dubai include Christianity, Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism, and other faiths, to name a few.
- Additional frequent spoken languages include Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Tamil, Tagalog, Persian, Chinese, and others.
- According to WHO data from 2015, the average life expectancy in Dubai and the United Arab Emirates is 76 years for men and 79 years for women.
In 2013, the entire expenditure on healthcare in the UAE accounted for 3.2 percent of the country’s gross domestic product.
The city of Dubai was founded in 1833, when roughly 800 immigrants from the Bani Yas clan came in Dubai Creek to establish a trading post. As a result of its harbor, the city grew and prospered in the fields of fishing, sea trade, and pearling, finally earning the title of port city. By the 1930s, Dubai had a population of almost 20,000 people, and the city’s population has continued to grow. The origins of the term Dubai have long been a source of controversy. Several sources claim that the name derives from a term that meaning money, implying that the people who lived there possessed a great deal of wealth.
People to Dubai and an indicator of the country’s future economic position may be found on the Deira side of the creek, where the largest market in the area has been put up with roughly 350 businesses, attracting visitors into the city and providing an indication of its future economic standing.
In 2013, Dubai was ranked as the world’s seventh most visited city, thanks to a combination of historic and modern attractions such as the Deira Clocktower, the Burj Al Arab hotel (which is the world’s third tallest building), and the Hatta Heritage Village, among others.
Dubai Population Growth
Approximately 800 inhabitants from the Bani Yas clan came to Dubai Creek in 1833, establishing the city as the first in the world. With the development of this harbor, an economy based on fishing, sea trade, and pearling flourished, ultimately earning the city the title of port city. It was estimated that Dubai had 20,000 people by the 1930s, and the population has continued to grow. Several theories have been advanced about the origin of the word Dubai. Persons who believe that the name derives from a term that meaning money believe that it was given to the area because it was assumed that those who lived there possessed a great deal of wealth Alternatively, some have argued that the name is derived from the Arabic term “Yadub,” which means “creek,” and that it is appropriate for the location that divides the city of Dubai into two distinct regions: Deira and Bur Dubai.
However, the name may be derived from a combination of factors.
Over the years, Dubai has had a strong economy as well as steady population expansion.
Dubai has also been dubbed the “shopping capital of the Middle East” because of its 70 retail malls, the greatest of which being the Dubai Mall, which is the world’s largest shopping mall by square footage.
Dubai most cosmopolitan city globally, 83% population is foreign-born
As reported by the World Migration Report, Dubai is the world’s most cosmopolitan metropolis, with 83 percent of its population descended from foreign parents. Brussels, with 62 percent of its people having been born in a foreign nation, is the second most populous city after Dubai. Toronto (46 percent), Auckland (39 percent), Sydney (39 percent), Los Angeles (39 percent), Singapore (38 percent), London (37 percent), New York (37 percent), and Melbourne (37 percent) are the other top 10 cities (35 percent ).
According to data published by local authorities, around 90 percent of the population is made up of expats.
According to a previous United Nations report, approximately 50% of international migrants live in ten highly urbanized, high-income countries such as Australia, Canada, and the United States, several countries in Europe (France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom), the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, among other places.
- Nearly one-fifth of the world’s foreign-born population lives in established global gateway towns, according to the United Nations.
- For migrants, a considerably larger choice of locations throughout the world have emerged as potential destinations.
- Cities all around the world are seeing a continual ebb and flow of people between urban, regional, national, and global communities and communities inside cities.
- Follow Emirates 24|7 on Google News to stay up to date.
Demography, migration, and the labour market in the UAE
As reported by the World Migration Report, Dubai is the world’s most cosmopolitan metropolis, with 83 percent of its inhabitants being of foreign descent. Brussels, with 62 percent of its population having been born in a foreign nation, is the second most populous city in Europe after Dubai. Toronto (46 percent), Auckland (39 percent), Sydney (39 percent), Los Angeles (39 percent), Singapore (38 percent), London (37 percent), New York (37 percent), and Melbourne (37 percent) are the other top 10 cities, respectively (35 percent ).
Expats constitute around 90 percent of the population, according to estimates published by municipal authorities.
The World Migration Report (WMR), citing an earlier United Nations report, stated that approximately 50% of international migrants reside in ten highly urbanized and high-income countries such as Australia, Canada, and the United States; several countries in Europe (France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom); Russia; Saudi Arabia; and the United Arab Emirates In these nations, migrants tend to congregate in urban areas.
In established global gateway cities, about one out of every five people born in another country live.
Migrants are now finding themselves in a far larger range of cities throughout the world.
There is a steady ebb and flow of individuals between urban, regional, national and global groups in every city on the face of the planet.
The report went on to say that as a result, cities are facing increasing difficulties in dealing with the effects of immigration-induced diversity. Google News is where you can keep up with Emirates 24|7.
UAE is the country with most immigrants
Published at 6:24 p.m. on Wednesday, May 17, 2017. Last modified on Thursday, May 18, 2017 at 6:52 p.m. Which country has the most number of immigrants per capita of its total population? According to an investigation by the Daily Telegraph in the United Kingdom, it is the United Arab Emirates. In order to arrive at this conclusion, the research looked upon United Nations data. The United Arab Emirates takes first place in the ranking since 88 percent of the country’s population was born in another country.
- According to the Migration Policy Institute, about 3.5 million migrants live in the United Arab Emirates, with 935,000 hailing from Egypt and 906,000 hailing from Pakistan, among other countries.
- Indians constitute the largest group of immigrants, accounting for 646,000 people.
- Kuwait was ranked third because 74 percent of its population is made up of migrants from India, Egypt, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, according to the United Nations Development Programme.
- Liechtenstein, sandwiched between Austria and Switzerland, is barely 25 kilometers long and has a population of around 40,000 people.
- More over 60% of Andorra’s population are immigrants, the majority of them are from Spain.
- Only 1.2 percent of the population in Central America is made up of immigrants.
- There are barely 1.4 percent of persons in South America who were born outside of the continent.
Population of the United Arab Emirates
69 percent of the population (6.824 million) is male, compared to 31 percent of the population (3.066 million), according to United Nations data. The UAE has a gender ratio of 223.8 men per 100 females and an annual growth rate of 1.2 percent compared to the previous year. The yearly average rate of population growth was around 2.1 percent in 2016, based on the official population census conducted in 2016. Federal Competitiveness and Statistics Authority (governmental) estimates that the country’s population at the end of 2016 reached approximately 9.121 million people, with 69.05 percent of males (6.298 million) and 30.95 percent of females (2.823 million), resulting in a male to female ratio of 223.
Between the 2005 population census (4.106 million people) and the 2016 population census (9.121 million people), the total growth rate was around 122 percent, with an average annual growth rate of 11 percent throughout that period.
One of the major expatriate populations in Pakistan is the Indian community, which is followed by the Pakistani and Bengali communities as well as nationalities from other Asian, European, and African countries.
Expats come from a variety of backgrounds, according to the CIA World Factbook, which includes the following groups: 59.4 percent are from South Asia (including India 38.2 percent, Bangladesh 9.5 percent, Pakistan 9.4 percent, and others 2.3 percent), and 10.2 percent are from Egypt, 6.1 percent are from the Philippines, and another 12.7 percent are from other countries in the region (2015 estimate).
The UAE government aspires to establish a balance in the demographic mix between residents and expats by implementing a number of policies (non-Emiratis).
The national identity index is considered one of the key performance indicators specified by the UAE government to preserve the cohesion of society as well as the pride in one’s own identity and affiliation in order to achieve the national agenda of the UAE Vision 2021 and achieve the national agenda of the UAE Vision 2030.
According to the index, the actual proportion of the index achieved 97.8 percent in 2020, and the index aimed to reach 100 percent by 2021, according to the index Source:@Fanack There are over 200 nationalities working or residing in the United Arab Emirates, and as a result of the presence of more than 200 different nationalities in the country, there are a variety of languages in circulation, including English, Hindi and Urdu.
There are also Nepalese, Persian, and Russian, as well as Tagalog, Filipino, and various other European languages.
Islam is recognized as the official religion of the nation.
The state allows for the practice of a wide range of religious beliefs.
The UAE’s Kafala System: Harmless or Human Trafficking? – Dubai’s Role in Facilitating Corruption and Global Illicit Financial Flows
The following is a table of contents: Foreign nationals account for approximately 90 percent of the UAE’s over 9 million-strong population; the majority are low-wage and semi-skilled workers from Africa, Asia, and other parts of the Middle East. As a result, the country’s economy is heavily reliant on migrant workers from a variety of countries around the world. 1 For decades, labor migration to the United Arab Emirates has been controlled through a private sponsorship system known as kafala.
The regulations and processes that govern the kafala system differ from one state to the next.
However, the kafala system continues to be a critical component of the state’s ability to maintain political control in a country where only a minority of the population has citizenship rights and where legal and social power is concentrated in the hands of a small number of royal families (see Figure 1).
With foreign nationals accounting for around 90 percent of the UAE’s over 9 million-strong population, the country’s economy is primarily reliant on migrant workers.
2They say that this has enabled the state to keep its national character, give major economic and social benefits to those who have acquired citizenship, and maintain a safe and stable society based on the rule of law in the country.
Emiratis are not permitted to create or join a labor union, to engage in collective bargaining, to strike, or to exercise their rights to peaceful assembly, association, and protest under any circumstances.
Labor Reforms in the UAE
a list of the topics that will be covered The UAE’s economy is primarily reliant on migrant labor, with over 90 percent of the country’s over 9 million-strong population consisting of foreign nationals, the vast majority of whom are low-wage and semi-skilled workers from Africa, Asia, and other parts of the Middle East. 1 For decades, labor migration to the United Arab Emirates has been controlled through a private sponsorship system known as kafala. This system has been in place in the Gulf Cooperation Council nations and other Middle Eastern countries.
Over the last decade, the UAE, like the majority of its neighbors, has implemented a number of changes aimed at increasing labor mobility and ensuring that migrant workers’ rights are adhered to.
More poorly understood is the system’s role in establishing an informal social contract between the state and its citizens, which effectively promises the latter a reliable source of revenue and significant control over migrant labor in exchange for restrictions on their social and political liberties.
The uneven legal status of migrant workers has long been seen as a concern of national security by the authorities of the United Arab Emirate.
3 3 UAE nationals, on the other hand, are subject to considerable political and other limitations.
Prominent human rights campaigners have been abducted (called “enforced disappearances”) and convicted for demanding even seemingly trivial rights, such as greater freedom of expression and political independence.
Investigation and Prosecution of Labor Exploitation
In 2013, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons highlighted that the United Arab Emirates largely viewed trafficking as an issue involving women and children, as well as commercial sex exploitation. She speculated that this may be due to the country’s strategy of delinking trafficking and labor migration, as well as a reluctance to act in cases of trafficking for labor exploitation. “Emirati authorities have firmly said that ‘labour difficulties should not be related to human trafficking and should be dealt independently,'” according to the report’s author.
Musatafa Qadri founded and serves as the president and executive director of Equidem Research and Consulting, which specializes in human rights and labor rights research. Unfortunately, these points of view have not shifted throughout the course of time. A report published by the United States Department of State in 2019 on trafficking in persons stated that violations of Emirati laws, which are frequently used as indicators of trafficking (such as passport confiscation, delayed or nonpayment of wages, and contract switching), were rarely investigated by the UAE government as possible trafficking crimes.
No investigations, charges, or convictions of authorities involved in human trafficking were reported in the United Arab Emirates during 2018.
According to publicly accessible information, the government’s efforts to safeguard victims of sex trafficking appear to be focused nearly solely on those who have been trafficked.
11 Women and children who have been victims of human trafficking and sexual exploitation are given refuge at Ewa’a shelters, which are run by the Dubai Foundation for Women and Children, the Women’s Protection Centre of the Social Services Department of the Government of Sharjah, and the General Directorate for Human Rights Protection, which provides assistance to “women and children who have been victims of human trafficking.” Individuals who have been trafficked and subjected to labor exploitation are not specifically mentioned in the text as receiving assistance.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) noted in its 2018 “Global Report on Trafficking in Persons” that shortly after the United Arab Emirates (UAE) passed its anti-trafficking law in 2006, the number of trafficking victims that the government discovered increased, possibly indicating that the government was paying more attention to the issue.
12 According to UNODC data, however, all of the eighty-eight victims that were discovered between 2014 and 2017 were women or girls, with the majority of them having been exposed to sexual exploitation. 13
Labor Rights and Wider Social Reform
A variety of labor market conditions, including the confiscation of passports, long hours of work, poor working and living environments, and the withholding of wages, among others, contribute to the growing demand for trafficked migrants and the creation of lucrative opportunities for recruiters, exploiters, and brokers. Although the UAE authorities continue to deal with labor law infractions administratively, as previously stated, the United States State Department’s 2019 report indicated that they seldom investigate cases of probable human trafficking or recommend them for criminal prosecution.
- 15 In terms of state stability, the relationship between the kafala system and the broader social compact between governments and citizens has been a critical component of success.
- 16 In contrast, with a few exceptions, practically all foreign employees are required to be sponsored by an employer who is a citizen or resident of the United Arab Emirates.
- Because of this, there is a substantial power imbalance between the sponsor, who is also the worker’s legal employer, and the migrant worker.
- In practice, it is common for migrant workers to manage and operate a business on behalf of their sponsoring organization.
- The structure places the sponsor in command of the employee, resulting in a power dynamic that is eerily similar to the one that exists between the state and the citizen.
- Residents benefit from the riches created by the economy and maintain their social position above migrant workers, regardless of whether or not these employees are highly trained and essential to the running of the state and the economy as a whole.
- Citizen perceptions of the reform would be that it represented a challenge to their privileges in an otherwise constrained society.
- Nonetheless, the UAE, along with the rest of the Gulf nations, is working to increase indigenous involvement in the workforce in order to minimize its overdependence on foreign employees.
- However, in the lack of organized labor involvement as well as expanded civil and political rights, the preferential treatment residents get as well as the control they exercise over migrant workers will continue to be important aspects of the UAE’s social compact.
1Riaz Hassan, “The UAE’s Unsustainable Nation Building,” YaleGlobal Online, April 24, 2018. 2Riaz Hassan, “The UAE’s Unsustainable Nation Building.” . The following are citations: 2Noora Lori, “National Security and the Management of Migrant Labor: A Case Study of the United Arab Emirates,”Asian and Pacific Migration Journal20, no. 3–4 (2011): 315–37,3Noora Lori, “National Security and the Management of Migrant Labor: A Case Study of the United Arab Emirates,”Asian and Pacific Migration Journal20, no.
“UAE: Put an end to the unrelenting crackdown on critics ahead of the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix,” says the press release.
Five-point strategy for combating human trafficking, Embassy of the United Arab Emirates (Washington, DC), accessed December 5, 2019.
7 Thessa Lageman, “Dubai in the United Arab Emirates is a Center of Human Trafficking and Prostitution,” Sydney Morning Herald, January 20, 2016; “‘I Already Bought You’: Abuse and Exploitation of Female Migrant Domestic Workers in the United Arab Emirates,” Human Rights Watch, 2014; “Dubai in the United Arab Emirates is a Center of Human Trafficking and Prostitution,” Sydney Morning Herald, January 20, 2016; “Dubai in the United Arab Emirates is a Center of Human Traffic 8 9″Report of the Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Joy Ngozi Ezeilo: Mission to the United Arab Emirates,” UN Human Rights Council, February 22, 2013, 6–7; and “2015 Trafficking in Persons Report: United Arab Emirates,” U.S.
Department of State, 2015.10″Report of the Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Joy Ngozi Ezeilo: Mission to the United Arab Emirates,” On December 5, 2019, the United States Department of State published the “2019 Trafficking in Persons Report: United Arab Emirates.” “Combating Human Trafficking,” says No.
United Arab Emirates (UAE) Government, Twelveth edition of the “Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2018,” published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime in 2018.
Department of State’s “2019 Trafficking in Persons Report: United Arab Emirates” is available online.
In addition, see Samir Kantaria et al., “EmploymentLabour Law in the UAE,” Lexology, October 8, 2018, “Recruiting in Free Zones,” Government of the UAE; and “Starting a Business in a Free Zone,” Government of the UAE Government of the United Arab Emirates, viewed on December 5, 2019.
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